Corona image in Corona era

Detection and Documentation of the Great Wall of Gorgan

by dr. Abbass Malian

The Great Wall of Gorgan or the Red Snake (which owes its name to its red color bricks), is a historical wall that extends from the Caspian Sea to the top of the Alborz Mountains. Almost all of this wall is now gone, leaving only small parts of it buried underground. The Great Wall of Gorgan, with a length of about 200 km, the construction of which took more than 90 years, is the longest historical monument in Iran and the largest defensive wall in the world after the Great Wall of China. The historical wall of Gorgan dates back to the Sassanid period. Archaeologists have dated it to the 5th century AD.

ituation of the Great Wall
Oblique aerial photo of the remains of the Great Wall
Old aerial photo of the Great Wall region (1955)
IKONOS image of the Great Wall near Gonbad city (2000)
Archaeological excavation on the remains of the Great Wall
CartoSat satellite image of the Great Wall region (2011)
Corona photo of the Great Wall (1967)
Oblique color photo of the Great Wall
Output of the feature extraction algorithm
Spectral index maps produced:   1) Lime detection band ratio,    2) Iron-oxide detection band ratio, 3) NDVI,   4) NDSI,   5) Clay detection band ratio,   6) NDWI
3D digital model of the Great Wall area
a) slope map    b) aspect map

Contribution of each criterion in the final decision according to the assigned weights
UAV Operation                                              GNSS Operation
Multi-Criteria Decision Making
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